Characteristics of Good Training Programme
Many organizations, even though they have a large training staff and spend a large amount on training programmes, don’t get good results. In order to ensure that the training programmes are effective and the organizations get good results from them, the following principles may be observed:
- Determination of training needs: The management should first decide the training needs of employees and then select a method of training that is most effective.
- Relevance to job requirements: Training programmes must be related to the requirements of the job for which they are intended.
- Allowance for individual differences: There are differences in ability, learning capacity and interest of trainees so the management should consider these factors while designing the training programmes.
- Training programme should be result oriented: Management should avoid “training for the sake of training;’ and show greater interest in the benefits of training programmes.
- Suitable incentives: There should be incentives to the trainees to make them take training programmes seriously.
- Management support: Top managers should take interest in and support the training programmes. Subordinates cannot be expected to take the training programmes seriously if their superiors themselves are not serious about them.
Every company has a specific training procedure, depending upon its requirements. A general training procedure is explained below along with diagram:
Step 1: Determining training needs of employee
In the very first step of training procedure, the HR department, identifies the number of people required training, specific area in which they need training, the age group of employee, the level in organization etc. in some cases the employee may be totally new to the organization. Here the general introduction training is required. Some employees may have problems in specific areas; here the training must be specific. This entire information is collected by HR department.
The objective in establishing needs analysis is to find out the answers to the following questions:
- Why is training needed;
- What type of training is needed;
- When is the training needed;
- Where is the training needed;
- Who needs the training;
- Who will conduct the training; and
- How will the training be performed?
The steps that are normally used to analyse training needs are as follows:
- Perform a gap analysis;
- Identify priorities and importance;
- Identify causes of performance problems and/or opportunities;
- Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities; and
- Present your findings
Step 2: Selecting target group
Based on information collected in step 1 the HR department divides employee into groups based on the following:
- The area of training;
- Level in the organization; and
- The intensity of training.
Step 3: Preparing trainers
Once the employees have been divided into groups, the HR department arranges for trainers. Trainers can be in house trainers or specialized trainers from outside. The trainers are given details by HR department, like number of people in group, their age, their level in organization, the result desired at the end of training, the area of training, the number of days of training, the training budget, facilities available etc.
Step 4: Preparing training packages
Based on the information provided by trainers, he prepares entire training schedule i.e. number of days, number of sessions each day, topics to be handled each day, depth of which the subject should be covered, the methodology for each session, the test to be given for each session, handout/printed material to be given in each session.
Step 5: Presentation/ Implementation (Performance)
This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program. Once you have designated your trainers, the training technique must be decided. One-on-one training, on-the-job training, group training, seminars, and workshops are the most popular methods. Before presenting a training session, make sure you have a thorough understanding of the following characteristics of an effective trainer. The trainer should have:
- A desire to teach the subject being taught;
- Working knowledge of the subject;
- Ability to motivate participants to “want” to learn;
- Good sense of humor;
- Dynamic appearance and good posture;
- Strong passion for their topic;
- Strong compassion towards their participants; and
- Appropriate audio/visual equipment to enhance the training session.
For a training program to be successful the trainer should be conscious of several essential elements, including a controlled environment, good planning, using different training methods; good communication skills; and trainee participation.
Step 6: Evaluation / Follow-Up
This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been. Methods for evaluation are pre-and post- surveys, the establishment of a cost/benefit analysis outlining your expenses and returns, and an increase in customer satisfaction and profits. The reason for an evaluation system is simple. The evaluation of training programs is the most important step in the training process. It is this step that will indicate the effectiveness of both the training as well as the trainer.
There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training program.
- First, evaluations will provide feedback on the trainer’s performance, allowing them to improve themselves for future programs.
- Second, evaluations will indicate its cost-effectiveness.
- Third, evaluations are an efficient way to determine the overall effectiveness of the training program for the employees as well as the organization.
The importance of the evaluation process after the training is critical since it enables the trainer to understand the effectiveness of the training. Evaluation is a systematic process to determine the worth, value, or meaning of something and involves forming value decision about the quality of programs, products, and goals.