Key Terms of the Vikings Age

Lindisfarne: also known as Holy Island, is an island located in the northeast coast of England, on which a small castle was built after the Viking invasion.

Origin of the term “Viking”: The tern originated from the medieval Scandinavian language, meaning a pirate seeking wealth through raids.

Danevirke: an earthwork or fortification erected by Danes in Germany during the Viking Age, used for military purposes.

Charlemagne: A king and emperor of the Romans, Lombards and Franks between 768 and 800.

Dorestad: An emporium or business town used as a port in the southeast of Netherlands during the Viking era.

Louis the Pious: He was a king during the rule of the Franks, last monarch of the Franks, and son of Charlemagne.

Treaty of Verdun: The first of agreements, signed in 843, to divide the Carolingian Empire

Viking attacks on Paris, 845 and 885: Viking raids involving the siege of Paris where the Vikings entered and plundered the city, first led by the Norse Chieftain, Reginherus, in 845.

Charles the Bald: King of West France between 843 and 877. Also an emperor of the Carolingian Empire during the Viking Age.

Edict of Pistres: A legislative policy (capitulary) enacted on 25th July 864 during the reign of Charles Bald to protect the Frank kingdom from Viking raids.

Rollo: The first Viking ruler of Normandy, Northern France

The four Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: four kingdoms of Britain during the 5th century: East Anglia, Mercia, Wessex, and Northumbria.

Great Heathen Army: Alliance of Norse soldiers from Denmark, united to attack the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in AD 865

Ivar the Boneless: Viking leader who raided the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms during the Viking era.

Danegeld: Tribute payments to Vikings during the reign of King Athelred in England.

Alfred the Great: King of Anglo-Saxon kingdom between 886 and 899.

Battle of Edington: A battle between Anglo-Saxon army, led by Alfred the Great, and the Great Heathen Army in AD 878.

Danelaw: A section of England which was dominated by Danish laws

Five Boroughs of the Midlands: the major towns of the East midlands: Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, and Stamford.

Burh: British fortification developed by Alfred the Great to prevent Viking attacks in the 9th century.

Edward the Elder: Anglo-Saxon king between AD 899 and AD 924, elder son and successor of Alfred the Great, and predecessor of Aethelstan.

Aetheflaed: A ruler of Mercia, an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the Midlands, between 911 and 918.

Aethelstan: Anglo-Saxon king who succeeded Edward the Elder in 924 and ruled until 927 AD.

Battle of Brunanburh: fight between Aethelstan’s army and the alliance of the King of Dublin and the King of Scotland in AD 937.

Battle of Maldon: War between the English and Vikings in Essex on 11th August 991 during the rule of Aethelred.

Cnute the Great: King of North Sea Empire (Denmark, England, Norway) between 1016 and 1035.

Battle of Assandun: fight that occurred on 18th October 1016 between Danish and English army.

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