UCU 101: Development Studies Notes

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

LESSON ONE:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT……………………….. 6

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Underdevelopment……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Theories of Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Further reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

LESSON TWO:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS…………………………………………………………….13

Introduction:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Gender Mainstreaming………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Evolution of Gender Approaches in Development…………………………………………………………………… 16

Critical areas for Gender Mainstreaming:…………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Further reading:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

LESSON THREE:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES……………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

General Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22

Topic One: Science and Technology in Development………………………………………………………….. 22

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22

Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22

The Linkage Between Science, Technology and Development……………………………………………… 25

Science, Technology and Development in the South……………………………………………………………….. 26

Kenya’s position on science and technology……………………………………………………………………………….. 27

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

Further Reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30

Topic Two: Agriculture And Development…………………………………………………………………………….. 32

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32

Agriculture and Farming Practices or Systems……………………………………………………………………………. 32

Contributions of Agriculture to National Economic Growth…………………………………………………. 33

Some Constraints of Agricultural Development…………………………………………………………………………. 34

Rural Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36

Further Reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36

Topic Three: Urbanization And Development………………………………………………………………………. 38

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38

Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

Urbanization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38

Trends and patterns of Global Urbanization……………………………………………………………………………….. 39

Role of urbanization in development…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41

Problems of urbanization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41

Challenges of Urbanization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42

Further reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

LESSON FOUR:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

POPULATION, RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT: INTERELATIONSHIP. 43

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

Trends in Population Growth: Size, Distribution, Structure and Composition…………………. 44

Schools of thought on Population and Resources:…………………………………………………………………….. 46

Implication of Population Growth:………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48

Resource use and Management (Consumption Patterns)…………………………………………………………. 49

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

Further reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51

LESSON FIVE:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52

PARTICIPATION, GOVERNANCE, ETHICS AND DEVELOPMENT………………. 52

General Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

Topic One: Participatory Development…………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52

The Essence of Participatory Approach in Development…………………………………………………………. 53

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

Further reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

Topic Two: Politics, Law Social Justice And Development………………………………………………. 59

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59

Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

Attitudes Towards Politics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60

What Makes Politics Inevitable?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60

The Role of the State………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61

Politics Defined……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61

The Role of Politics in Development……………………………………………………………………………………………… 62

The Law Defined………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

The Sources of Kenyan Law……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64

The Functions of Law………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64

How Can Law Promote Development?……………………………………………………………………………………….. 65

Social Justice…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67

Further reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68

Topic Three: Morality and Development…………………………………………………………………………………. 69

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69

Objective………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69

Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69

Morality and Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71

Activities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71

Further reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72

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